“Purchasing power creates jobs.”
By Dean Russell
You hear it everywhere: Wages must be kept high in order to increase the purchasing power of the wage earners, so that they can buy back the products they make in our factories, and thus keep everybody working and prevent depressions.
But in both theory and practice, that “high wage and spending” cliche confuses the issue in two ways. First, regardless of the division of industrial income between wage earners and dividend earners, that income will still be spent in one way or another for more goods and services. Thus, the issue is not “spending” as such, but rather who does the spending and for what. Second, it is capital investment (which is also “spending”) that builds the factories and provides the jobs here under discussion.
Actually, when there is an increase in the percentage of total industrial income going for wages, there is also likely to be an increase in unemployment. Here is how it works: When a company has losses or earns comparatively small profits, a higher percentage of the income available for distribution obviously goes to employees rather than to owners. During such “red ink” recessions and depressions, the owners get little or nothing; the employees sometimes get it all. Yet it is precisely during these loss-and-low-profit periods that unemployment is highest.
The Department of Commerce (Survey of Current Business series) will confirm the following: When the percentage of national income going to capital is higher than usual (that is, when industrial profits are above average), jobs are plentiful and unemployment is comparatively low. That correlation between high profits and more jobs should be obvious to everyone, since you can easily deduce it from the fact that companies go broke and close down when there are losses or inadequate profits. But for some unknown reason, that direct and observable relationship between industrial jobs and profits is usually denied by union leaders and government officials.
Since 1930 and our government’s deliberate policy of maintaining wages above the free market level, peace-time unemployment has become our most persistent economic problem. And millions of American workers are still unemployed today, in spite of the highest consumer purchasing power (and spending) in our history. Yet, for the most part, union leaders and lawmakers claim they will correct the situation by raising wages at the expense of profits!
All the “consumer purchasing power” in the world cannot create even one permanent job in an economy where the return on capital is negligible or nothing. That is, if every person in the world had twice as much money as he now has to spend, not one job would thereby be created unless the owners of the factories believed they could earn adequate profits. It is the actual and anticipated return on capital, not consumer purchasing power as such, that causes investment in new buildings and machines, and the resulting creation of more production and more jobs. Thus, laws and coercive union policies that increase wages at the expense of profits do not create jobs; they destroy them.